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Remember Me. Confirm Password. He was also seen in the presence of an American heiress, Florence Garner, and the two became engaged. On 27 December he received an anonymous message from Paris that read: "they are beginning to talk much here of They have talked too much in England".
A fortnight later Gordon-Cumming was informed by a lady acquaintance that the events at Tranby Croft were being discussed in London society; [k] Gordon-Cumming again wrote to Williams to inform him of developments and received an unsatisfactory response.
He then sent a telegram to the prince asking to meet and informing him that "information I have recently received to the effect that the whole story is the subject of comment at the Turf Club Although Edward acknowledged receipt of the message, he declined to meet.
Wontners had some knowledge of the law surrounding baccarat as they had previously been involved in the Jenks v. Turpin case. On the advice of his solicitors Gordon-Cumming obtained a written summary of events from Coventry and Williams, and informed his commanding officer, Colonel Stacey, of the situation.
Stacey told Gordon-Cumming that, according to Article 41 of the Queen's Regulations , he should already have reported the matter.
Gordon-Cumming replied that because the prince had been involved, and because all present had been sworn to secrecy, he had been unable to fulfil the requirement of the Regulations.
He then "placed his commission in Stacey's hands pending the result of As the matter involved the prince, Stacey consulted other officers in the regiment about what should be done, and found that opinion was divided between allowing Gordon-Cumming to remain in the regiment while he defended himself, or removing him straight away.
The Colonel of the Scots Guards, the prince's younger brother, the Duke of Connaught , was also asked: according to Havers, Grayson and Shankland, the duke "insisted that Gordon-Cumming must be crushed".
He reported the situation to the Adjutant-General to the Forces , General Sir Redvers Buller , and requested permission to let Gordon-Cumming retire on half-pay.
Buller agreed to the request, but stated that if Gordon-Cumming's legal action failed, the permission would be reviewed.
If you bring a successful action you will be allowed to retire: if you fail, you will be dismissed [from] the service".
On 27 January Gordon-Cumming made a final attempt to have the rumours scotched by instructing his solicitors to write to the two Lycett Greens, Stanley Wilson, Levett and Mary Wilson, to demand retraction of the accusation or face a writ for slander.
On receipt of the writ the Wilsons consulted their solicitor George Lewis , who had also acted for the prince on previous occasions.
Asquith , the future Liberal Prime Minister. Wontners approached the Solicitor General , Sir Edward Clarke , to act as counsel on Gordon-Cumming's behalf.
If Gordon-Cumming could be found guilty by a military tribunal, then the rationale for a court case would disappear. Lewis asked Coventry and Williams to raise the matter again with Buller, who rejected their entreaties.
Buller explained his decision in a letter to the queen's secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby , writing that, "I absolutely declined to take action against After Buller received a letter from Wontners confirming that civil action was taking place, he consulted the Judge Advocate General , who informed him that no military enquiry should take place while such a case was proceeding.
A vote of the members rejected the possibility, and the civil trial remained the outcome. Journalists drew their own conclusions from the manoeuvrings by the prince and his entourage, with the radical press quick to attack the attempts to avoid the scrutiny of a civil court.
The Echo wrote that, "The Baccarat Scandal is to be hushed up It is, no doubt, a very comfortable arrangement for all parties concerned", while even The New York Times , normally sympathetic to Edward, foresaw political problems if the trial was prejudiced by such actions.
After it was decided the case would be heard by the Lord Chief Justice , Lord Coleridge , his court at the Royal Courts of Justice , London, was converted to accommodate the case, raising the height of the bench and witness box, and installing new seating.
The trial opened on 1 June The prince sat on a red leather chair on a raised platform between the judge and the witness box;  his appearance was the first time since that an heir to the throne had appeared involuntarily in court.
Lord Coleridge had appropriated half of the public gallery, and had given tickets to his friends". Clarke opened the case for the plaintiff, telling the jury that, "It is a simple question, aye or no, did Sir William Gordon-Cumming cheat at cards?
After an adjournment for lunch Gordon-Cumming returned to the witness box, where he was cross-examined by Russell.
If I had not lost my head I would not have signed that document". Gordon-Cumming was replaced in the witness box by Prince Edward.
Examined by Clarke, he stated that he had not seen any cheating, and was ignorant of the accusations until he was told by Coventry and Williams.
Except to those near him, only two or three of his answers were fairly audible throughout the courtroom". The court adjourned for lunch after Edward's examination, and after the break Clarke called his last witness, Williams.
Under Clarke's questioning Williams confirmed that he had seen no actions by Gordon-Cumming that he considered as unfair.
When cross-examined by Clarke he was not brow-beaten by the lawyer's questions, although Clarke made him appear "brash, conceited and callow". He was unsure of other details of the evening's play, and had not witnessed anything on the second night.
Edward Lycett Green, described by Havers, Grayson and Shankland as "the emotional force behind the accusations",  was next in the witness box.
Although he had not played on the first night, Clarke considered Lycett Green a potentially dangerous witness, as he may have held vital evidence.
The hedging by the principal accuser certainly weakens the defendants' case". Lycett Green was followed into the witness box by his wife, and her testimony ran into the following day.
Under questioning she confirmed that she had seldom played baccarat before; although she had seen nothing untoward on the first night, she accepted her husband's second-hand version of events as the truth, but did not agree that as a result she had been watching Gordon-Cumming.
Although she "gave the most important part of her evidence with clarity and conviction",  and had impressed the public and press, according to Havers, Grayson and Shankland, she provided a different series of events to those outlined by other witnesses, although she stated that she thought she had seen Gordon-Cumming illicitly add to his stake.
After Mrs Lycett Green had finished her testimony on the fifth day, her place was taken by Mrs Wilson. On examination by Russell, Mrs Wilson stated that she thought she saw Gordon-Cumming cheat twice by adding additional counters to his stake.
Mrs Wilson stated that only her husband had placed such an amount, but Wilson had not played on either night as he disliked both the game and high-stakes gambling.
Havers, Grayson and Shankland consider it "rather shocking really, considering that she had sworn to tell the truth, The final witness called for the defence was Coventry.
He was one of the non-playing members of the party who had witnessed no cheating, understood little about gambling and, as a non-soldier, knew nothing of Article 41 of the Queen's Regulations.
When cross-examined by Clarke, Coventry confirmed that as far as he was aware, the witnesses had all decided to watch Gordon-Cumming's play on the second night, despite their claims to the contrary.
Daily Chronicle , June . As the defence closed, the Daily Chronicle considered "the obvious doubts which tainted the accusations of the defendants Once Russell had completed his speech for the defendants, Clarke gave his reply, which the Daily Chronicle considered to be "a very brilliant, powerful, wily and courageous effort".
He went on to outline that there had been celebrations at the races—the prince's horse had won on the first day, and the St Leger had been run on the second—combined with the full hospitality of the Wilsons to consider: according to the court reporter for The Times , Clarke "alluded to the profuse hospitalities of Tranby Croft, not with any idea of suggesting drunkenness, but as indicating that the guests might not be in a state for accurate observation".
Above all, Clarke indicated, the defendants—with the exception of Stanley Wilson—saw what they had been told to expect: "the eye saw what it expected or sought to see The others were all told there had been cheating, and expected to see it".
Havers, Grayson and Shankland . The following day, 9 June, Coleridge began his four-hour summing up. The jury deliberated for only thirteen minutes before finding in favour of the defendants;  their decision was greeted by prolonged hissing from some members of the galleries.
According to the historian Christopher Hibbert "the demonstrations in court were an accurate reflection of the feelings of the people outside".
It would be difficult to exaggerate the momentary unpopularity of the Prince",  and he was booed at Ascot that month. Gordon-Cumming was dismissed from the army on 10 June ,  the day after the case closed, and he resigned his membership of his four London clubs: the Carlton , Guards', Marlborough and Turf.
He retired to his Scottish estate and his property in Dawlish , Devon. He never re-entered society and the prince "declined to meet anyone who henceforth acknowledged the Scottish baronet".
His brilliant record is wiped out and he must, so to speak, begin life again. Such is the inexorable social rule He has committed a mortal offence.
Following the trial the prince changed his behaviour to some extent, and although he continued to gamble, he did so in a more discreet manner; he stopped playing baccarat altogether, taking up whist instead.
The scandal and court case have been the subject of factual and fictional publications. Royal 9 is a progressive baccarat side bet.
The side bet is marketed by AGS. As usual, for baccarat I capitalize the Player and Banker when referring to the those bets and use low case for the word player to refer to the one playing the game.
All wins are on a "for one" basis. Following is my analysis for an eight-deck game with six player positions. The value of a seventh player spot is 0.
Following is my analysis for a six-deck game with six player positions. I would like to thank AGS for sharing their GLI math report with me for Royal 9.
My results agree with those in the report. Enter your email address to receive our newsletter and other special announcements.